The purpose of this paper is to review from an instructional-design ID point of view nine teaching programs developed by cognitive psychologists over the last ten years. Among these models, Collins' cognitive apprenticeship model has the most explicit prescriptions for instructional design. The paper analyzes the cognitive apprenticeship model, then uses components of the model as an organizing framework for understanding the remaining models. Differences in approach are noted between traditional ID prescriptions and the cognitive teaching models. Surprisingly, we were unable to identify common design strategies common to all of the model programs.
The Naked and the Dead is a novel by Norman Mailer.
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